The Swedish financial market
The Swedish Financial Sector
2 percent of the workforce
4,6 percent of the GDP
10 percent of the corporate tax.
The economic role of the financial sector
The main functions of the financial system are to convert savings into funding, to create the conditions for efficient processing of payments in the economy and to manage risks. An efficient and reliable financial system is of fundamental importance for the Swedish economy to both function and grow. These systems consist of banks and other credit institutions, insurance companies, securities companies and other companies in the financial sector.
The financial industry is important for the economic growth and employment in Sweden. In 2022, the financial industry accounted for 4.6 percent of the total output in Sweden, expressed as its GDP, and employed over 100,000 individuals, representing about 2 percent of the total workforce. This can be compared with the manufacturing industry, which employs 11 percent of the workforce, and the information and communication sector, which employs 5 percent.
Banks are also important taxpayers: in 2021, the seven largest banks in Sweden paid SEK 14 billion in corporation tax, representing around 10 percent of the total corporation tax in Sweden. In addition, the seven largest banks and two publicly owned credit institutions pay a risk tax from 2022. The risk tax amounted in total to SEK 6.3 billion in 2022.
Types of financial enterprises
Banks (commercial banks, foreign bank branches and savings banks) constitute the largest group of companies in the financial sector in Sweden as regards total assets and liabilities. The banks’ total balance sheet items were SEK 10,245 billion in 2021. Credit market companies come next after the banks in size, measured in total balance sheet items. Housing credit institutions are the largest group of companies among the credit market institutions. All the housing credit institutions are owned by banks.
Securities companies conduct trade with securities in their own name on behalf of customers and on their own behalf, as well as commission trading. In this capacity they play an important role in creating an efficient market for securities.
Beyond the above-mentioned companies, there is a group of companies that fulfil an important role in the financial market as investors: insurance companies, mutual funds companies and pension funds. In addition, there are also private equity companies and FinTech. Private equity companies mediate risk capital by investing and taking partownership in companies. FinTech are companies that offer financial services using the latest digital technology.
New technology has also paved the way for the establishment of new banks and companies offering financial services (FinTech), and in turn increased competition within banking. These new channels of distribution of banking services have enabled the development of new services whilst existing services have changed.
Bank branch offices now have become less important for bank customers’ daily bank services. Today these services are almost exclusively performed using computers, mobile phones and tablets. Other ways of performing bank services are, for example, real time payments between customers (Swish) and e-invoices.
Mutual funds and insurance savings have been among the most important forms of household savings for many years. Around 75 percent of the population have some of their savings in mutual funds. Bank savings are, however, the largest household savings type.